» Show your audience what to expect when making a choice » Give timely information across the customer journey » Provide a channel for questions when there is high uncertainty
Research. An urn contains 90 balls, in which 30 are known to be red, and the remaining 60 are either black or yellow. A ball is drawn from the urn and participants can choose one of two gambles:
Option A - You get $100 if the ball is red / Option B - You get $100 if the ball is black
Most people choose Option A over Option B in the gambles listed above. This experiment was instrumental in demonstrating our preference for the known over the unknown.
Ellsberg (1961). Risk, Ambiguity, and the Savage Axioms
"Better the devil you know than the devil you don't."
Case study. As advertising legend Rory Sutherland highlights, the London Underground observed their biggest improvement in customer satisfaction after introducing the dot matrix display boards on the platform. Knowing that a train was late, but still going to show up, significantly relieved commuter’s anxiety caused by the uncertainty.